cryptomnesia

Cryptomnesia

28 July 2010

Cryptomnesia occurs when a forgotten memory returns without its being recognised as such by the subject, who believes it is something new and original. It is a memory bias whereby a person may falsely recall generating a thought, an idea, a song, or a joke, not deliberately engaging in plagiarism but rather experiencing a memory […]

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Posted in Memory errors0 Comments

Wild Horses

Herd behavior

28 July 2010

Herd behavior describes how individuals in a group can act together without planned direction. The term pertains to the behavior of animals in herds, flocks, and schools, and to human conduct during activities such as stock market bubbles and crashes, street demonstrations, sporting events, religious gatherings, episodes of mob violence and even everyday decision making, […]

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Posted in Social biases0 Comments

proud man

The Dunning–Kruger effect

28 July 2010

The Dunning–Kruger effect is a cognitive bias in which an unskilled person makes poor decisions and arrives at erroneous conclusions, but their incompetence denies them the metacognitive ability to realize their mistakes. The unskilled therefore suffer from illusory superiority, rating their own ability as above average, much higher than it actually is, while the highly […]

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Fakeface

Pareidolia

28 July 2010

Pareidolia (pronounced pa-ri-DOE-lee-ə) is a psychological phenomenon involving a vague and random stimulus (often an image or sound) being perceived as significant. Common examples include seeing images of animals or faces in clouds, the man in the moon, and hearing hidden messages on records played in reverse. Evolutionary explanation It is thought that there may […]

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Posted in Biases in probability and belief2 Comments

gamblers_fallacy

Gambler’s fallacy

28 July 2010

The Gambler’s fallacy’, also known as “the Monte Carlo fallacy” or the “fallacy of the maturity of chance”s, is the belief that if deviations from expected behaviour are observed in repeated independent trials of some random process then these deviations are likely to be evened out by opposite deviations in the future. For example, if […]

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exposure

Mere exposure effect

28 July 2010

The exposure effect is a psychological phenomenon by which people tend to prefer things because they are familiar with them. In social psychology, this effect is sometimes called the familiarity principle. In studies of interpersonal attraction, the more often a person is seen by someone, the more pleasing and likeable that person appears to be. […]

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Posted in Decision-making and behavioral biases0 Comments

congruence

Congruence bias

28 July 2010

Congruence bias is a type of cognitive bias similar to confirmation bias. Congruence bias occurs due to people’s overreliance on direct testing of a given hypothesis, and their corresponding neglect of indirect testing. Suppose that in an experiment, a subject is presented with two buttons, and is told that pressing one of those buttons, but […]

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Posted in Decision-making and behavioral biases0 Comments

dice

Neglect of probability

28 July 2010

The “neglect of probability bias” is the tendency to disregard probabilities when making decisions which involve a degree of uncertainty. It is a simple way in which many people violate the normative rules for making decisions. This isn’t the only kind of cognitive bias related to probability–others include “the gambler’s fallacy,” “the hindsight bias,” and […]

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Posted in Decision-making and behavioral biases1 Comment



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